Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled organisms. Only some bacteria cause disease in humans. Other bacteria live inside the intestine, urogenital system, or on the skin without causing any harm. Some bacteria are believed to help keep people healthy.

The most common bacterial infections in children are skin infections (including impetigo), ear infections, and sore throats (strep throat). These bacterial disorders and many other less common bacterial disorders are treated similarly in adults and children and are discussed elsewhere. Other infections occur at all ages but have special considerations in children. Many severe bacterial infections can be prevented with routine early childhood immunization.

Common Bacterial Skin Infections in Children

Impetigo

Impetigo is a skin infection. When it affects only the surface, it is called superficial impetigo. Impetigo can likewise influence further pieces of the skin. This is called ecthyma. It may happen on healthy skin. Or it may happen at the site of a cut, scratch, or insect bite to the skin.

Impetigo is most common in children ages 2 to 5. This means that it is easily transmitted from person to person. It can spread all over the house. Children can infect other family members, and they can infect themselves again.

Cellulitis

Cellulitis is a common bacterial infection that affects the skin and tissues directly under the skin.

  • Most often, this infection is caused by streptococci or staphylococcus.
  • Some people feel redness, pain, and tenderness in an area of the skin, and some people have a fever, chills, and other more serious symptoms.
  • Diagnosis is based on the doctor’s evaluation and sometimes laboratory tests.
  • Antibiotics are necessary to treat the infection.

Folliculitis, furuncles, and carbuncles

The bacteria on the skin can infect one or more hair follicles. Hair follicles are the basis or root of the hair. There are 3 different types of infection:

  • Folliculitis. This is inflammation of the hair follicles. 
  • Furuncle. This is an infection that affects hair follicles that enter the deeper layers of the skin. A small pocket of pus (abscess) forms. Also known as a dimple.
  • Carbuncle. This is a group of pus-infected hair follicles. A carbuncle is larger and deeper than a carbuncle.                                           

These can happen anyplace on the skin where there is hair. They often occur where there may be friction and sweating. This includes the back of the neck, face, armpits, waist, thighs, thighs, or buttocks.

Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever is an irresistible malady that causes a rash. Also known as cochineal. It is caused by the same type of bacteria that causes sore throats. It may also be due to infected wounds or burns. The rash consists of small, sandpaper-like red bumps.

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

Streptococcus scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is a serious skin infection. The infection causes the skin to peel over large parts of the body. The skin appears to have been burned or burnt with a hot liquid. It is more common in summer and fall.

Risk of bacterial infections in children

Some children are at particular risk of bacterial infection.

High-risk children include

  • Infants under the age of 3 months
  • Children who do not have a spleen
  • Children with an immune system disorder
  • Children with sickle cell disease
  • Children with cancer
  • Children who did not recommend vaccinations

Diagnosis

  • Tests of blood, body fluids, or tissue samples
  • Culture

Doctors sometimes diagnose a bacterial infection by the typical symptoms it causes. Usually, however, the bacteria must be identified in samples of tissues, blood, or body fluids, such as urine, pus, or cerebrospinal fluid. Sometimes bacteria from these samples can be identified under a microscope or identified with rapid detection tests such as tests that look for genetic material from a specific bacteria. However, it is usually too few or too small to be seen, so doctors should try to grow it (transplant it) in the laboratory. Bacteria culture usually takes 24 to 48 hours.

Cultures can also be used to test the susceptibility of specific bacteria to different antibiotics. The results can help the doctor determine which medicine to use in treating an affected child.

Prevention

  • Routine immunization

Numerous bacterial infections in children can be forestalled by following the suggested inoculation plan. Many viral infections (such as measles, polio, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B) can also be prevented with routine vaccination..

Treatment

  • Antibiotics
  • Sometimes also surgery

Antibiotics are medicines used to treat bacterial infections. There are many different antibiotics. Each one is only effective on specific bacteria, although some are more effective against a wide range of bacteria than others. Most of the time, antibiotics alone can eliminate bacterial infection. However, when an infection produces a large collection of pus, people sometimes also need surgery to drain the pus. These infections include abscesses and joint infections.

Doctors may treat some potentially serious childhood infections with antibiotics before the results of the transplant appear. At the point when results are gotten, the anti-microbials are proceeded or changed varying. If no bacteria are found, the antibiotics may be stopped.

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